The Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt and the Government of the
State of Israel;
Convinced of the urgent necessity of the establishment of a just, comprehensive
and lasting peace in the Middle East in accordance with Security Council
Resolutions 242 and 338;
Reaffirming their adherence to the "Framework for Peace in the
Middle East Agreed at Camp David," dated September 17, 1978;
Noting that the aforementioned Framework as appropriate is intended
to constitute a basis for peace not only between Egypt and Israel but also
between Israel and each of its other Arab neighbors which is prepared to
negotiate peace with it on this basis;
Desiring to bring to an end the state of war between them and to establish
a peace in which every state in the area can live in security;
Convinced that the conclusion of a Treaty of Peace between Egypt and
Israel is an important step in the search for comprehensive peace in the
area and for the attainment of settlement of the Arab- Israeli conflict
in all its aspects;
Inviting the other Arab parties to this dispute to join the peace process
with Israel guided by and based on the principles of the aforementioned
Desiring as well to develop friendly relations and cooperation between
themselves in accordance with the United Nations Charter and the principles
of international law governing international relations in times of peace;
Agree to the following provisions in the free exercise of their sovereignty,
in order to implement the "Framework for the Conclusion of a Peace
Treaty Between Egypt and Israel";
1.The state of war between the Parties will be terminated and peace
will be established between them upon the exchange of instruments of ratification
of this Treaty.
2.Israel will withdraw all its armed forces and civilians from the Sinai
behind the international boundary between Egypt and mandated Palestine,
as provided in the annexed protocol (Annex I ), and Egypt will resume the
exercise of its full sovereignty over the Sinai.
3.Upon completion of the interim withdrawal provided for in Annex I,
the parties will establish normal and friendly relations, in accordance
with Article III (3).
The permanent boundary between Egypt and Israel in the recognized international
boundary between Egypt and the former mandated territory of Palestine,
as shown on the map at Annex II, without prejudice to the issue of the
status of the Gaza Strip. The Parties recognize this boundary as inviolable.
Each will respect the territorial integrity of the other, including their
territorial waters and airspace.
1.The Parties will apply between them the provisions of the Charter
of the United Nations and the principles of international law governing
relations among states in times of peace. In particular:
a.They recognize and will respect each other's sovereignty, territorial
integrity and political independence; b.They recognize and will respect
each other's right to live in peace within their secure and recognized
boundaries; c.They will refrain from the threat or use of force, directly
or indirectly, against each other and will settle all disputes between
them by peaceful means.
2.Each Party undertakes to ensure that acts or threats of belligerency,
hostility, or violence do not originate from and are not committed from
within its territory, or by any forces subject to its control or by any
other forces stationed on its territory , against the population, citizens
or property of the other Party. Each Party also undertakes to refrain from
organizing, instigating, inciting, assisting or participating in acts or
threats of belligerency, hostility, subversion or violence against the
other Party, anywhere, and undertakes to ensure that perpetrators of such
acts are brought to justice.
3.The Parties agree that the normal relationship established between
them will include full recognition, diplomatic, economic and cultural relations,
termination of economic boycotts and discriminatory barriers to the free
movement of people and goods, and will guarantee the mutual enjoyment by
citizens of the due process of law. The process by which they undertake
to achieve such a relationship parallel to the implementation of other
provisions of this Treaty is set out in the annexed protocol (Annex III).
1.In order to provide maximum security for both Parties on the basis
of reciprocity, agreed security arrangements will be established including
limited force zones in Egyptian and Israeli territory, and United Nations
forces and observers, described in detail as to nature and timing in Annex
I, and other security arrangements the Parties may agree upon.
2.The Parties agree to the stationing of United Nations personnel in
areas described in Annex I. The Parties agree not to request withdrawal
of the United Nations personnel and that these personnel will not be removed
unless such removal is approved by the Security Council of the United Nations,
with the affirmative vote of the five Permanent Members, unless the Parties
3.A Joint Commission will be established to facilitate the implementation
of the Treaty, as provided for in Annex I.
4.The security arrangements provided for in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this
Article may at the request of either party be reviewed and amended by mutual
agreement of the Parties.
1.Ships of Israel, and cargoes destined for or coming from Israel, shall
enjoy the right of free passage through the Suez Canal and its approaches
through the Gulf of Suez and the Mediterranean Sea on the basis of the
Constantinople Convention of 1888, applying to all nations, Israeli nationals,
vessels and cargoes, as well as persons, vessels and cargoes destined for
or coming from Israel, shall be accorded non- discriminatory treatment
in all matters connected with usage of the canal.
2.The Parties consider the Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba to
be international waterways open to all nations for unimpeded and non-suspendable
freedom of navigation and overflight. The parties will respect each other's
right to navigation and overflight for access to either country through
the Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba.
1.This Treaty does not affect and shall not be interpreted as affecting
in any way the rights and obligations of the Parties under the Charter
of the United Nations.
2.The Parties undertake to fulfill in good faith their obligations under
this Treaty, without regard to action or inaction of any other party and
independently of any instrument external to this Treaty.
3.They further undertake to take all the necessary measures for the
application in their relations of the provisions of the multilateral conventions
to which they are parties, including the submission of appropriate notification
to the Secretary General of the United Nations and other depositaries of
4.The Parties undertake not to enter into any obligation in conflict
with this Treaty.
5.Subject to Article 103 of the United Nations Charter in the event
of a conflict between the obligation of the Parties under the present Treaty
and any of their other obligations, the obligations under this Treaty will
be binding and implemented.
1.Disputes arising out of the application or interpretation of this
Treaty shall be resolved by negotiations.
2.Any such disputes which cannot be settled by negotiations shall be
resolved by conciliation or submitted to arbitration.
The Parties agree to establish a claims commission for the mutual settlement
of all financial claims.
1.This Treaty shall enter into force upon exchange of instruments of
2.This Treaty supersedes the Agreement between Egypt and Israel of September,
3.All protocols, annexes, and maps attached to this Treaty shall be
regarded as an integral part hereof.
4.The Treaty shall be communicated to the Secretary General of the United
Nations for registration in accordance with the provisions of Article 102
of the Charter of the United Nations.
Protocol Concerning Israeli Withdrawal and Security Agreements
Concept of Withdrawal
1.Israel will complete withdrawal of all its armed forces and civilians
from the Sinai not later than three years from the date of exchange of
instruments of ratification of this Treaty.
2.To ensure the mutual security of the Parties, the implementation of
phased withdrawal will be accompanied by the military measures and establishment
of zones set out in this Annex and in Map 1, hereinafter referred to as
3.The withdrawal from the Sinai will be accomplished in two phases:
a.The interim withdrawal behind the line from east of El-Arish to Ras
Mohammed as delineated on Map 2 within nine months from the date of exchange
of instruments of ratification of this Treaty. b.The final withdrawal from
the Sinai behind the international boundary not later than three years
from the date of exchange of instruments of ratification of this Treaty.
4.A Joint Commission will be formed immediately after the exchange of
instruments of ratification of this Treaty in order to supervise and coordinate
movements and schedules during the withdrawal, and to adjust plans and
timetables as necessary within the limits established by paragraph 3, above.
Details relating to the Joint Commission are set out in Article IV of the
attached Appendix. The Joint Commission will be dissolved upon completion
of final Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai.
Determination of Final Lines and Zones
1.In order to provide maximum security for both Parties after the final
withdrawal, the lines and the Zones delineated on Map 1 are to be established
and organized as follows:
1.Zone A is bounded on the east by line A (red line) and on the west
by the Suez Canal and the east coast of the Gulf of Suez, as shown on Map
1. 2.An Egyptian armed force of one mechanized infantry division and its
military installations, and field fortifications, will be in this Zone.
3.The main elements of that Division will consist of:
a.Three mechanized infantry brigades. b.One armed brigade. c.Seven field
artillery battalions including up to 126 artillery pieces. d.Seven anti-aircraft
artillery battalions including individual surface-to-air missiles and up
to 126 anti-aircraft guns of 37 mm and above. e.Up to 230 tanks. f.Up to
480 armored personnel vehicles of all types. g.Up to a total of twenty-two
1.Zone B is bounded by line B (green line) on the east and by line A
(red line) on the west, as shown on Map 1. 2.Egyptian border units of four
battalions equipped with light weapons and wheeled vehicles will provide
security and supplement the civil police in maintaining order in Zone B.
The main elements in the four Border Battalions will consist of up to a
total of four thousand personnel. 3.Land based, short range, low power,
coastal warning points of the border patrol units may be established on
the coast of this Zone. 4.There will be in Zone B field fortifications
and military installations for the four border battalions.
1.Zone C is bounded by line B (green line) on the west and the International
Boundary and the Gulf of Aqaba on the east, as shown on Map 1. 2.Only United
Nations forces and Egyptian civil police will be stationed in Zone C. 3.The
Egyptian civil police armed with light weapons will perform normal police
functions within this Zone. 4.The United Nations Force will be deployed
within Zone C and perform its functions as defined in Article VI of this
annex. 5.The United Nations Force will be stationed mainly in camps located
within the following stationing areas shown on Map 1, and will establish
its precise locations after consultations with Egypt:
a.In that part of the area in the Sinai lying within about 20 Km. of
the Mediterranean Sea and adjacent to the International Boundary. b.In
the Sharm el Sheikh area.
1.Zone D is bounded by line D (blue line) on the east and the international
boundary on the west, as shown on Map 1. 2.In this Zone there will be an
Israeli limited force of four infantry battalions, their military installations,
and field fortifications, and United Nations observers. 3.The Israeli forces
in Zone D will not include tanks, artillery and anti-aircraft missiles
except individual surface-to-air missiles. 4.The main elements of the four
Israeli infantry battalions will consist of up to 180 armored personnel
vehicles of all types and up to a total of four thousand personnel.
2.Access across the international boundary shall only be permitted through
entry check points designated by each Party and under its control. Such
access shall be in accordance with laws and regulations of each country.
3.Only those field fortifications, military installations, forces, and
weapons specifically permitted by this Annex shall be in the Zones.
Aerial Military Regime
1.Flights of combat aircraft and reconnaissance flights of Egypt and
Israel shall take place only over Zones A and D, respectively.
2.Only unarmed, non-combat aircraft of Egypt and Israel will be stationed
in Zones A and D, respectively.
3.Only Egyptian unarmed transport aircraft will take off and land in
Zone B and up to eight such aircraft may be maintained in Zone B. The Egyptian
border unit.,., may be equipped with unarmed helicopters to perform their
functions in Zone B.
4.The Egyptian civil police may be equipped with unarmed police helicopters
to perform normal police functions in Zone C.
5.Only civilian airfields maybe built in the Zones.
6.Without prejudice to the provisions of this Treaty, only those military
aerial activities specifically permitted by this Annex shall be allowed
in the Zones and the airspace above their territorial waters.
1.Egypt and Israel may base and operate naval vessels along the coasts
of Zones A and D, respectively.
2.Egyptian coast guard boats, lightly armed, may be stationed and operate
in the territorial waters of Zone B to assist the border units in performing
their functions in this Zone.
3.Egyptian civil police equipped with light boats, lightly armed, shall
perform normal police functions within the territorial waters of Zone C.
4.Nothing in this Annex shall be considered as derogating from the right
of innocent passage of the naval vessels of either party.
5.Only civilian maritime ports and installations may be built in the
6.Without prejudice to the provisions of this Treaty, only those naval
activities specifically permitted by this Annex shall be allowed in the
Zones and in their territorial waters.
Early Warning Systems
Egypt and Israel may establish and operate early warning systems only
in Zones A and D respectively.
United Nations Operations
1.The Parties will request the United Nations to provide forces and
observers to supervise the implementation of this Annex and employ their
best efforts to prevent any violation of its terms.
2.With respect to these United Nations forces and observers, as appropriate,
the Parties agree to request the following arrangements:
a.Operation of check points, reconnaissance patrols, and observation
posts along the international boundary and line B, and within Zone C. b.Periodic
verification of the implementation of the provisions of this Annex will
be carried out not less than twice a month unless otherwise agreed by the
Parties. c.Additional verifications within 48 hours after the receipt of
a request from either Party. d.Ensuring the freedom of navigation through
the Strait of Tiran in accordance with Article V of the Treaty of Peace.
3.The arrangements described in this article for each zone will be implemented
in ones A, B, and C by the United Nations Force and in Zone D by the United
4.United Nations verification teams shall be accompanied by liaison
officers of the respective Party.
5.The United Nations Force and observers will report their findings
to both Parties.
6.The United Nations Force and Observers operating in the Zones will
enjoy freedom of movement and other facilities necessary for the performance
of their tasks.
7.The United Nations Force and Observers are not empowered to authorize
the crossing of the international boundary.
8.The Parties shall agree on the nations from which the United Nations
Force and Observers will be drawn. They "ill be drawn from nations
other than those which are permanent members of the United Nations Security
9.The Parties agree that the United Nations should make those command
arrangements that will best assure the effective implementation of its
1.Upon dissolution of the Joint Commission, a liaison system between
the Parties will be established. This liaison system is intended to provide
an effective method to assess progress in the implementation of obligations
under the present Annex and to resolve any problem that may arise in the
course of implementation, and refer other unresolved matters to the higher
military authorities of the two countries respectively for consideration.
It is also intended to prevent situations resulting from errors or misinterpretation
on the part of either Party.
2.An Egyptian liaison office will be established in the city of El-Arish
and an Israeli liaison office will be established in the city of Beer-Sheba.
Each office will be headed by an officer of the respective country, and
assisted by a number of officers.
3.A direct telephone link between the two offices will be set up and
also direct telephone lines with the United Nations command will be maintained
by both offices.
Respect for War Memorials
Each Party undertakes to preserve in good condition the War Memorials
erected in the memory of soldiers of the other Party, namely those erected
by Egypt in Israel, and shall permit access to such monuments.
The withdrawal of Israeli armed forces and civilians behind the interim
withdrawal line, and the conduct of the forces of the Parties and the United
Nations prior to the final withdrawal, will be governed by the attached
Appendix and Map 2.
Appendix to Annex I Organization of Movements in the Sinai
Principles of Withdrawal
1.The withdrawal of Israeli armed forces and civilians from the Sinai
will be accomplished in two phases as described in Article I of Annex I.
The description and timing of the withdrawal are included in this Appendix.
The Joint Commission will develop and present to the Chief Coordinator
of the United Nations forces in the Middle East the details of these phases
not later than one month before the initiation of each phase of withdrawal.
2.Both parties agree on the following principles for the sequences of
a.Notwithstanding the provisions of Article IX, paragraph 2, of this
Treaty, until Israeli armed forces complete withdrawal from the current
J and M Lines established by the Egyptian-Israeli Agreement of September
1975, hereinafter referred to as the 1975 Agreement, up to the interim
withdrawal line, all military arrangements existing under that Agreement
will remain in effect, except those military arrangements otherwise provided
for in this Appendix. b.As Israeli armed forces withdraw, United Nations
forces will immediately enter the evacuated areas to establish interim
and temporary buffer zones as shown on Maps 2 and 3, respectively, for
the purpose of maintaining a separation of forces. United Nations forces'
deployment will precede the movement of any other personnel into these
areas. c.Within a period of seven days after Israeli armed forces have
evacuated any area located in Zone A, units of Egyptian armed forces shall
deploy in accordance with the provisions of Article II of this Appendix.
d.Within a period of seven days after Israeli armed forces have evacuated
any area located in Zones A or B, Egyptian border units shall deploy in
accordance with the provisions of Article II of this Appendix, and will
function in accordance with the provisions of Article II of Annex I. e.Egyptian
civil police will enter evacuated areas immediately after the United Nations
forces to perform normal police functions. f.Egyptian naval units shall
deploy in the Gulf of Suez in accordance with the provisions of Article
II of this Appendix. g.Except those movements mentioned above, deployments
of Egyptian armed forces and the activities covered in Annex I will be
offered in the evacuated areas when Israeli armed forces have completed
their withdrawal behind the interim withdrawal line.
Subphases of the Withdrawal to the Interim Withdrawal Line
1.The withdrawal to the interim withdrawal line will be accomplished
in subphases as described in this Article and as shown on Map 3. Each subphase
will be completed within the indicated number of months from the date of
the exchange of instruments of ratification of this Treaty:
a.First subphase: within two months, Israeli armed forces will withdraw
from the area of El Arish, including the town of El Arish and its airfield,
shown as Area I on Map 3. b.Second subphase: within three months, Israeli
armed forces will withdraw from the area between line M of the 1975 Agreement
and line A, shown as Area II on Map 3. c.Third subphase: within five months,
Israeli armed forces will withdraw from the area east and south of Area
II, shown as Area III on Map 3. d.Fourth subphase: within seven months,
Israeli armed forces will withdraw from the area of El Tor- Ras El Kenisa,
shown as Area IV on Map 3. e.Fifth subphase: Within nine months, Israeli
armed forces will withdraw from the remaining areas west of the interim
withdrawal line, including the areas of Santa Katrina and the areas east
of the Giddi and Mitla passes, shown as Area V on Map 3, thereby completing
Israeli withdrawal behind the interim withdrawal line.
2.Egyptian forces will deploy in the areas evacuated by Israeli armed
forces as follows:
a.Up to one-third of the Egyptian armed forces in the Sinai in accordance
with the 1975 Agreement will deploy in the portions of Zone A lying within
Area I, until the completion of interim withdrawal. Thereafter, Egyptian
armed forces as described Article II of Annex I will be deployed in Zone
A up to the limits of the interim zone. b.The Egyptian naval activity in
accordance with Article IV of Annex I will commence along the coasts of
areas I, III and IV, upon completion of the second, third, and fourth subphases,
respectively. c.Of the Egyptian border units described in Article II of
Annex I, upon completion of the first subphase one battalion will be deployed
in Area I. A second battalion will deployed in Area II upon completion
of the second subphase. A third battalion will deployed in Area Ill upon
completion of the third subphase. The second and third battalions mentioned
above may also be deployed in any of the subsequently evacuated areas of
the southern Sinai.
3.United Nations forces in Buffer Zone I of the 1976 Agreement will
redeploy enable the deployment of Egyptian forces described above upon
the completion of the subphase, but will otherwise continue to function
in accordance with the provisions of that Agreement in the remainder of
that zone until the completion of interim withdrawal, as indicated in Article
I of this Appendix.
4.Israeli convoys may use the roads south and east of the main road
junction east of El Arish to evacuate Israeli forces up to the completion
of interim withdrawal. These convoys will proceed in daylight upon four
hours notice to the Egyptian liaison group and United Nations forces, will
be escorted by United Nations forces, and will be in accordance with schedules
coordinated by the Joint Commission. An Egyptian liaison officer will accompany
convoys to assure uninterrupted movement. The Joint Commission may approve
other arrangements for convoys.
United Nations Forces
1.The Parties shall request that United Nations forces be deployed as
necessary to perform the functions described in the Appendix up to the
time of completion of final Israeli withdrawal. For that purpose, the Parties
agree to the redeployment of the United Nations Emergency Force.
2.United Nations forces will supervise the implementation of this Appendix
and will employ their best efforts to prevent any violation of its terms.
3.When United Nations forces deploy in accordance with the provisions
of Article and II of this Appendix, they will perform the functions of
verification in limited force zones in accordance with Article VI of Annex
I, and will establish check points, reconnaissance patrols, and observation
posts in the temporary buffer zones described in Article II above. Other
functions of the United Nations forces which concern the interim buffer
zone are described in Article V of this Appendix.
Joint Commission and Liaison
1.The Joint Commission referred to in Article IV of this Treaty will
function from the date of exchange of instruments of ratification of this
Treaty up to the date of completion of final Israeli withdrawal from the
2.The Joint Commission will be composed of representatives of each Party
headed by senior officers. This Commission shall invite a representative
of the United Nations when discussing subjects concerning the United Nations,
or when either Party requests United Nations presence. Decisions of the
Joint Commission will be reached by agreement of Egypt and Israel.
3.The Joint Commission will supervise the implementation of the arrangements
described in Annex I and this Appendix. To this end, and by agreement of
both Parties, it will:
a.coordinate military movements described in this Appendix and supervise
their implementation; b.address and seek to resolve any problem arising
out of the implementation of Annex I and this Appendix, and discuss any
violations reported by the United Nations Force and Observers and refer
to the Governments of Egypt and Israel any unresolved problems; c.assist
the United Nations Force and Observers in the execution of their mandates,
and deal with the timetables of the periodic verification when referred
to it by the Parties as provided for in Annex I and this Appendix; d.organize
the demarcation of the international boundary and all lines and zones described
in Annex I and this Appendix; e.supervise the handing over of the main
installations in the Sinai from Israel to Egypt; f.agree on necessary arrangements
for finding and returning missing bodies of Egyptian and Israeli soldiers;
g.organize the setting up and operation of entry check points along the
El Arish-Ras Mohammed line in accordance with the provisions of Article
4 of Annex III; h.conduct its operations through the use of joint liaison
teams consisting of one Israeli representative and one Egyptian representative,
provided from a standing Liaison Group, which will conduct activities as
directed by the Joint Commission; i.provide liaison and coordination to
the United Nations command implementing provisions of the Treaty, and,
through the joint liaison teams, maintain local coordination and cooperation
with the United Nations Force stationed in specific areas or United Nations
Observers monitoring specific areas for any assistance as needed; j.discuss
any other matters which the Parties by agreement may place before it.
4.Meetings of the Joint Commission shall be held at least once a month.
In the event that either Party of the Command of the United Nations Force
requests a specific meeting, it will be convened within 24 hours.
5.The Joint Committee will meet in the buffer zone until the completion
of the interim withdrawal and in El Arish and Beer-Sheba alternately afterwards.
The first meeting will be held not later than two weeks after the entry
into force of this Treaty.
Definition of the Interim Buffer Zone and Its Activities
1.An interim buffer zone, by which the United Nations Force will effect
a separation of Egyptian and Israeli elements, will be established west
of and adjacent to the interim withdrawal line as shown on Map 2 after
implementation of Israeli withdrawal and deployment behind the interim
withdrawal line. Egyptian civil police equipped with light weapons will
perform normal police functions within this zone.
2.The United Nations Force will operate check points, reconnaissance
patrols, and observation posts within the interim buffer zone in order
to ensure compliance with the terms of this Article.
3.In accordance with arrangements agreed upon by both Parties and to
be coordinated by the Joint Commission, Israeli personnel will operate
military technical installations at four specific locations shown on Map
2 and designated as T1 (map central coordinate 57163940), T2 (map central
coordinate 59351541), T3 (map central coordinate 5933-1527), and T4 (map
central coordinate 61130979) under the following principles:
a.The technical installations shall be manned by technical and administrative
personnel equipped with small arms required for their protection (revolvers,
rifles, sub-machine guns, light machine guns, hand grenades, and ammunition),
T1 - up to 150 personnel T2 and T3 - up to 350 personnel T4 - up to
b.Israeli personnel will not carry weapons outside the sites, except
officers who may carry personal weapons.
c.Only a third party agreed to by Egypt and Israel will enter and conduct
inspections within the perimeters of technical installations in the buffer
zone. The third party will conduct inspections in a random manner at least
once a month. The inspections will verify the nature of the operation of
the installations and the weapons and personnel therein. The third party
will immediately report to the Parties any divergence from an installation's
visual and electronic surveillance or communications role.
d.Supply of the installations, visits for technical and administrative
purposes, and replacement of personnel and equipment situated in the sites,
may occur uninterruptedly from the United Nations check points to the perimeter
of the technical installations, after checking and being escorted by only
the United Nations forces.
e.Israel will be permitted to introduce into its technical installations
items required for the proper functioning of the installations and personnel.
f.As determined by the Joint Commission, Israel will be permitted to:
1.Maintain in its installations fire-fighting and general maintenance
equipment as well as wheeled administrative vehicles and mobile engineering
equipment necessary for the maintenance of the sites. All vehicles shall
be unarmed. 2.Within the sites and in the buffer zone, maintain roads,
water lines, and communications cables which serve the site. At each of
the three installation locations (T1, T2 and T3, and T4), this maintenance
may be performed with up to two unarmed wheeled vehicles and by up to twelve
unarmed personnel with only necessary equipment, including heavy engineering
equipment if needed. This maintenance may be performed three times a week,
except for special problems, and only after giving the United Nations four
hours notice. The teams will be escorted by the United Nations.
g.Movement to and from the technical installations will take place only
during daylight hours. Access to, and exit from, the technical installations
shall be as follows:
1.T1: Through a United Nations check point, and via the road between
Abu Aweigila and the intersection of the Abu Aweigila road and the Gebel
Libni road (at Km. 161), as shown on Map 2. 2.T2 and T3: through a United
Nations checkpoint and via the road constructed across the buffer zone
to Gebel Katrina, as shown on Map 2. 3.T2, T3, and T4: via helicopters
flying within a corridor at the times, and according to a flight profile,
agreed to by the Joint Commission. The helicopters will be checked by the
United Nations Force at landing sites outside the perimeter of the installations.
h.Israel will inform the United Nations Force at least one hour in advance
of each intended movement to and from the installations.
i.Israel shall be entitled to evacuate sick and wounded and summon medical
experts and medical teams at any time after giving immediate notice to
the United Nations Force.
4.The details of the above principles and all other matters in this
Article requiring coordination by the Parties will be handled by the Joint
5.These technical installations will be withdrawn when Israeli forces
withdraw from the interim withdrawal line, or at a time agreed by the parties.
Disposition of Installations and Military Barriers
Disposition of installations and military barriers will be determined
by the Parties in accordance with the following guidelines:
1.Up to three weeks before Israeli withdrawal from any area, the Joint
Commission will arrange for Israeli and Egyptian liaison and technical
teams to conduct a joint inspection of all appropriate installations to
agree upon condition of structures and articles which will be transferred
to Egyptian control and to arrange for such transfer. Israel will declare,
at that time, its plans for disposition of installations and articles within
2.Israel undertakes to transfer to Egypt all agreed infrastructures,
utilities, and installations intact, inter alia, airfields, roads, pumping
stations, and ports. Israel will present to Egypt the information necessary
for the maintenance and operation of the facilities. Egyptian technical
teams will be permitted to observe and familiarize themselves with the
operation of these facilities for a period of up to two weeks prior to
3.When Israel relinquishes Israeli military water points near El Arish
and El Tor, Egyptian technical teams will assume control of those installations
and ancillary equipment in accordance with an orderly transfer process
arranged beforehand by the Joint Commission. Egypt undertakes to continue
to make available at all water supply points the normal quantity of currently
available water up to the time Israel withdraws behind the international
boundary, unless otherwise agreed in the Joint Commission.
4.Israel will make its best effort to remove or destroy all military
barriers, including obstacles and minefields, in the areas and adjacent
waters from which it withdraws, according to the following concept:
a.Military barriers will be cleared first from areas near populations,
roads and major installations and utilities.
b.For those obstacles and minefields which cannot be removed or destroyed
prior to Israeli withdrawal, Israel will provide detailed maps to Egypt
and the United Nations through the Joint Commission not later than 15 days
before entry of United Nations forces into the affected areas.
c.Egyptian engineers will enter those areas after United Nations forces
enter to conduct barrier clearance operations in accordance with Egyptian
plans to be submitted prior to implementation.
1.Aerial surveillance activities during the withdrawal will be carried
out as follows:
a.Both Parties request the United States to continue airborne surveillance
flights in accordance with previous agreements until the completion of
final Israeli withdrawal. b.Flight profiles will cover the Limited Forces
Zones to monitor the limitations on forces and armaments, and to determine
that Israeli armed forces have withdrawn from the areas described in Article
II of Annex I, Article II of this Appendix, and Maps 2 and 3, and that
these forces thereafter remain behind their lines. Special inspection flights
may be flown at the request of either Party or of the United Nations. c.Only
the main elements in the military organizations of each Party, as described
in Annex I and in this Appendix, will be reported.
2.Both Parties request the United States operated Sinai Field Mission
to continue its operations in accordance with previous agreements until
completion of the Israeli withdrawal from the area east of the Giddi and
Mitla Passes. Thereafter, the Mission be terminated.
Exercise of Egyptian Sovereignty
Egypt will resume the exercise of its full sovereignty over evacuated
parts of the Sinai upon Israeli withdrawal as provided for in Article I
of this Treaty.
Map of Israel-Egypt International Boundary
Protocol Concerning Relations of the Parties
Diplomatic and Consular Relations
The Parties agree to establish diplomatic and consular relations and
to exchange ambassadors upon completion of the interim withdrawal.
Economic and Trade Relations
1.The Parties agree to remove all discriminatory barriers to normal
economic relations and to terminate economic boycotts of each other upon
completion of the interim withdrawal.
2.As soon as possible, and not later than six months after the completion
of the interim withdrawal, the Parties will enter negotiations with a view
to concluding an agreement on trade and commerce for the purpose of promoting
beneficial economic relations.
1.The Parties agree to establish normal cultural relations following
completion of the interim withdrawal.
2.They agree on the desirability of cultural exchanges in all fields,
and shall, as soon as possible and not later than six months after completion
of the interim withdrawal, enter into negotiations with a view to concluding
a cultural agreement for this purpose.
Freedom of Movement
1.Upon completion of the interim withdrawal, each Party will permit
the free movement of the nationals and vehicles of the other into and within
its territory according to the general rules applicable to nationals and
vehicles of other states. Neither Party will impose discriminatory restrictions
on the free movement of persons and vehicles from its territory to the
territory of the other.
2.Mutual unimpeded access to places of religious and historical significance
will be provided on a non- discriminatory basis.
Cooperation for Development and Good Neighborly Relations
1.The Parties recognize a mutuality of interest in good neighbourly
relations and agree to consider means to promote such relations.
2.The Parties will cooperate in promoting peace, stability and development
in their region. Each agrees to consider proposals the other may wish to
make to this end.
3.The Parties shall seek to foster mutual understanding and tolerance
and will, accordingly, abstain from hostile propaganda against each other.
Transportation and Telecommunications
1.The Parties recognize as applicable to each other the rights, privileges
and obligations provided for by the aviation agreements to which they are
both party, particularly by the Convention on International Civil Aviation,
1944 ("The Chicago Convention") and the International Air Services
Transit Agreement, 1944.
2.Upon completion of the interim withdrawal any declaration of national
emergency by a party under Article 89 of the Chicago Convention will not
be applied to the other party on a discriminatory basis.
3.Egypt agrees that the use of airfields left by Israel near El-Arish,
Rafah, Ras El-Nagb and Sharm El- Sheikh shall be for civilian purposes
only, including possible commercial use by all nations.
4.As soon as possible and not later than six months after the completion
of the interim withdrawal, the Parties shall enter into negotiations for
the purpose of concluding a civil aviation agreement.
5.The Parties will reopen and maintain roads and railways between their
countries and will consider further road and rail links. The Parties further
agree that a highway will be constructed and maintained between Egypt,
Israel and Jordan near Eilat with guaranteed free and peaceful passage
of persons, vehicles and goods between Egypt and Jordan, without prejudice
to their sovereignty over that part of the highway which falls within their
6.Upon completion of the interim withdrawal, normal postal, telephone,
telex, data facsimile, wireless and cable communications and television
relay services by cable, radio and satellite shall be established between
the two Parties in accordance with all relevant international conventions
7.Upon completion of the interim withdrawal, each Party shall grant
normal access to its ports for vessels and cargoes of the other, as well
as vessels and cargoes destined for or coming from the other. Such access
will be granted on the same conditions generally applicable to vessels
and cargoes of other nations. Article 5 of the Treaty of Peace will be
implemented upon the exchange of instruments of ratification of the aforementioned
Enjoyment of Human Rights
The Parties affirm their commitment to respect and observe human rights
and fundamental freedoms for all, and they will promote these rights and
freedoms in accordance with the United Nations Charter.
Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 5 of the Treaty of Peace
each Party recognizes the right of the vessels of the other Party to innocent
passage through its territorial sea in accordance with the rules of international
Egypt's resumption of the exercise of full sovereignty over the Sinai
provided for in paragraph 2 of Article I shall occur with regard to each
area upon Israel's withdrawal from the area.
It is agreed between the parties that the review provided for in Article
IV (4) will be undertaken when requested by either party, commencing within
three months of such a request, but that any amendment can be made only
by mutual agreement of both parties.
The second sentence of paragraph 2 of Article V shall not be construed
as limiting the first sentence of that paragraph. The foregoing is not
to be construed as contravening the second sentence of paragraph 2 of Article
V, which reads as follows: "The Parties will respect each other's
right to navigation and overflight for access to either country through
the Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba."
Article VI (2)
The provisions of Article VI shall not be construed in contradiction
to the provisions of the framework for peace in the Middle East agreed
at Camp David. The foregoing is not to be construed as contravening the
provisions of Article VI (2) of the Treaty, which reads as follows: "The
Parties undertake to fulfill in good faith their obligations under this
Treaty, without regard to action of any other Party and independently of
any instrument external to this Treaty."
Article VI (5)
It is agreed by the Parties that there is no assertion that this Treaty
prevails over other Treaties or agreements or that other Treaties or agreements
prevail over this Treaty. The foregoing is not to be construed as contravening
the provisions of Article VI (5) of the Treaty, which reads as follows:
"Subject to Article 103 of the United Nations Charter, in the event
of a conflict between the obligations of the Parties under the present
Treaty and any of their other obligations, the obligation under this Treaty
will be binding and implemented."
Article VI, Paragraph 8, of Annex I provides as follows:
"The Parties shall agree on the nations from which the United Nations
forces and observers will be drawn. They will be drawn from nations other
than those which are permanent members of the United Nations Security Council."
The Parties have agreed as follows:
"With respect to the provisions of paragraph 8, Article VI, of
Annex 1, if no agreement is reached between the Parties, they will accept
or support a U.S. proposal concerning the composition of the United Nations
force and observers."
The Treaty of Peace and Annex III thereto provide for establishing normal
economic relations between the Parties. In accordance herewith, it is agreed
that such relations will include normal commercial sales of oil by Egypt
to Israel, and that Israel shall be fully entitled to make bids for Egyptian-origin
oil not needed for Egyptian domestic oil consumption, and Egypt and its
oil concessionaires will entertain bids made by Israel, on the same basis
and terms as apply to other bidders for such oil.
For the Government of Israel
For the Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt
Witnessed by: Jimmy Carter President of the United States of America