An attempt by Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot to form a Communist peasant
farming society resulted in the deaths of 25 percent of the country's population
from starvation, overwork and executions.
Pol Pot was born in 1925 (as Saloth Sar) into a farming family in central
Cambodia, which was then part of French Indochina. In 1949, at age 20,
he traveled to Paris on a scholarship to study radio electronics but became
absorbed in Marxism and neglected his studies. He lost his scholarship
and returned to Cambodia in 1953 and joined the underground Communist movement.
The following year, Cambodia achieved full independence from France and
was then ruled by a royal monarchy.
Map & Photos
Cambodia and surrounding area.
Pol Pot addresses a closed meeting in Phnom Penh after the
1975 Khmer Rouge victory.
Young Khmer Rouge soldiers in 1975.
Tuol Sleng Prison, the nerve center of the Khmer Rouge secret
police. Today it's the Tuol Sleng Museum of Genocide.
The Killing Fields at Choeung Ek. This mass grave, discovered
in 1980, was one of the first proofs to the outside world of what had occurred
during Pol Pot's regime.
By 1962, Pol Pot had become leader of the Cambodian Communist Party
and was forced to flee into the jungle to escape the wrath of Prince Norodom
Sihanouk, leader of Cambodia. In the jungle, Pol Pot formed an armed resistance
movement that became known as the Khmer Rouge (Red Cambodians) and waged
a guerrilla war against Sihanouk's government.
In 1970, Prince Sihanouk was ousted, not by Pol Pot, but due to a U.S.-backed
right-wing military coup. An embittered Sihanouk retaliated by joining
with Pol Pot, his former enemy, in opposing Cambodia's new military government.
That same year, the U.S. invaded Cambodia to expel the North Vietnamese
from their border encampments, but instead drove them deeper into Cambodia
where they allied themselves with the Khmer Rouge.
From 1969 until 1973, the U.S. intermittently bombed North Vietnamese
sanctuaries in eastern Cambodia, killing up to 150,000 Cambodian peasants.
As a result, peasants fled the countryside by the hundreds of thousands
and settled in Cambodia's capital city, Phnom Penh.
All of these events resulted in economic and military destabilization
in Cambodia and a surge of popular support for Pol Pot.
By 1975, the U.S. had withdrawn its troops from Vietnam. Cambodia's
government, plagued by corruption and incompetence, also lost its American
military support. Taking advantage of the opportunity, Pol Pot's Khmer
Rouge army, consisting of teenage peasant guerrillas, marched into Phnom
Penh and on April 17 effectively seized control of Cambodia.
Once in power, Pol Pot began a radical experiment to create an agrarian
utopia inspired in part by Mao Zedong's Cultural Revolution which he had
witnessed first-hand during a visit to Communist China.
Mao's "Great Leap Forward" economic program included forced
evacuations of Chinese cities and the purging of "class enemies."
Pol Pot would now attempt his own "Super Great Leap Forward"
in Cambodia, which he renamed the Democratic Republic of Kampuchea.
He began by declaring, "This is Year Zero," and that society
was about to be "purified." Capitalism, Western culture, city
life, religion, and all foreign influences were to be extinguished in favor
of an extreme form of peasant Communism.
All foreigners were thus expelled, embassies closed, and any foreign
economic or medical assistance was refused. The use of foreign languages
was banned. Newspapers and television stations were shut down, radios and
bicycles confiscated, and mail and telephone usage curtailed. Money was
forbidden. All businesses were shuttered, religion banned, education halted,
health care eliminated, and parental authority revoked. Thus Cambodia was
sealed off from the outside world.
All of Cambodia's cities were then forcibly evacuated. At Phnom Penh,
two million inhabitants were evacuated on foot into the countryside at
gunpoint. As many as 20,000 died along the way.
Millions of Cambodians accustomed to city life were now forced into
slave labor in Pol Pot's "killing fields" where they soon began
dying from overwork, malnutrition and disease, on a diet of one tin of
rice (180 grams) per person every two days.
Workdays in the fields began around 4 a.m. and lasted until 10 p.m.,
with only two rest periods allowed during the 18 hour day, all under the
armed supervision of young Khmer Rouge soldiers eager to kill anyone for
the slightest infraction. Starving people were forbidden to eat the fruits
and rice they were harvesting. After the rice crop was harvested, Khmer
Rouge trucks would arrive and confiscate the entire crop.
Ten to fifteen families lived together with a chairman at the head of
each group. All work decisions were made by the armed supervisors with
no participation from the workers who were told, "Whether you live
or die is not of great significance." Every tenth day was a day of
rest. There were also three days off during the Khmer New Year festival.
Throughout Cambodia, deadly purges were conducted to eliminate remnants
of the "old society" - the educated, the wealthy, Buddhist monks,
police, doctors, lawyers, teachers, and former government officials. Ex-soldiers
were killed along with their wives and children. Anyone suspected of disloyalty
to Pol Pot, including eventually many Khmer Rouge leaders, was shot or
bludgeoned with an ax. "What is rotten must be removed," a Khmer
Rouge slogan proclaimed.
In the villages, unsupervised gatherings of more than two persons were
forbidden. Young people were taken from their parents and placed in communals.
They were later married in collective ceremonies involving hundreds of
Up to 20,000 persons were tortured into giving false confessions at
Tuol Sleng, a school in Phnom Penh which had been converted into a jail.
Elsewhere, suspects were often shot on the spot before any questioning.
Ethnic groups were attacked including the three largest minorities;
the Vietnamese, Chinese, and Cham Muslims, along with twenty other smaller
groups. Fifty percent of the estimated 425,000 Chinese living in Cambodia
in 1975 perished. Khmer Rouge also forced Muslims to eat pork and shot
those who refused.
On December 25, 1978, Vietnam launched a full-scale invasion of Cambodia
seeking to end Khmer Rouge border attacks. On January 7, 1979, Phnom Penh
fell and Pol Pot was deposed. The Vietnamese then installed a puppet government
consisting of Khmer Rouge defectors.
Pol Pot retreated into Thailand with the remnants of his Khmer Rouge
army and began a guerrilla war against a succession of Cambodian governments
lasting over the next 17 years. After a series of internal power struggles
in the 1990s, he finally lost control of the Khmer Rouge. In April 1998,
73-year-old Pol Pot died of an apparent heart attack following his arrest,
before he could be brought to trial by an international tribunal for the
events of 1975-79.
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