A series of financial events unfolded in the years 1921 through 1923
that would propel the Nazis to new heights of daring and would even prompt
Hitler into attempting to take over Germany.
In April of 1921, the victorious European Allies of World War I, notably
France and Britain, presented a bill to Germany demanding payment for damages
caused in the war which Germany had started. This bill (33 billion dollars)
for war reparations had the immediate effect of causing ruinous inflation
The German currency, the mark, slipped drastically in value. It had
been four marks to the U.S. dollar until the war reparations were announced.
Then it became 75 to the dollar and in 1922 sank to 400 to the dollar.
The German government asked for a postponement of payments. The French
refused. The Germans defied them by defaulting on their payments. In response
to this, in January 1923, the French Army occupied the industrial part
of Germany known as the Ruhr.
The German mark fell to 18,000 to the dollar. By July 1923, it sank
to 160,000. By August, 1,000,000. And by November 1923, it took 4,000,000,000
marks to obtain a dollar.
Germans lost their life savings. Salaries were paid in worthless money.
Groceries cost billions. Hunger riots broke out.
For the moment, the people stood by their government, admiring its defiance
of the French. But in September of 1923, the German government made the fateful
decision to resume making payments. Bitter resentment and unrest swelled
among the people, inciting extremist political groups to action and quickly
bringing Germany to the brink of chaos.
The Nazis and other similar groups now felt the time was right to strike.
The German state of Bavaria where the Nazis were based was a hotbed of
groups opposed to the democratic government in Berlin. By now, November
1923, the Nazis, with 55,000 followers, were the biggest and best organized.
With Nazi members demanding action, Hitler knew he had to act or risk losing
the leadership of his Party.
And so Hitler and the Nazis hatched a plot in which they would kidnap the leaders
of the Bavarian government and force them at gunpoint to accept Hitler
as their leader. Then, according to their plan, with the aid of famous
World War I General, Erich Ludendorff, they would win over the German
Army, proclaim a nationwide revolt and bring down the German democratic
government in Berlin.
They put this plan into action when they learned there was going to be a large
gathering of businessmen in a Munich beer hall and the guests of honor
were scheduled to be the Bavarian leaders they now wanted to kidnap.
On November 8, 1923, Nazi troops under the direction of Hermann Göring
surrounded the place. At 8:30 p.m., Hitler and his storm troopers burst
into the beer hall causing instant panic.
Hitler fired a pistol shot into the ceiling. "Silence!" he
yelled at the stunned crowd.
Hitler and Göring forced their way to the podium as armed storm troops continued to file into the hall. State Commissioner Gustav von Kahr, whose
speech had been interrupted by all this, yielded the podium to Hitler.
"The National Revolution has begun!" Hitler shouted. "No
one may leave the hall. Unless there is immediate quiet I shall have a
machine gun posted in the gallery. The Bavarian and Reich governments have
been removed and a provisional national government formed. The barracks
of the Reichswehr and police are occupied. The Army and the police are
marching on the city under the swastika banner!"
None of that was true, but those in the beer hall could not know otherwise.
Hitler then ordered the three highest officials of the Bavarian government
into a back room. State Commissioner Kahr, along with the head of the state
police, Colonel Hans von Seisser, and commander of the German Army in Bavaria,
General Otto von Lossow, did as they were told and went into the room where
Hitler informed them they were to join him in proclaiming a Nazi revolution
and would become part of the new government.
But to Hitler's great surprise, his three captives simply glared at
him and at first even refused to talk to him. Hitler responded by waving
his pistol at them, yelling: "I have four shots in my pistol! Three
for you, gentlemen. The last bullet for myself!"
However, the revolution in the back room continued to go poorly for Hitler.
Then, on a sudden impulse, Hitler dashed out of the room and went back
out to the podium and shouted: "The government of the November criminals and the Reich President
are declared to be removed. A new national government will be named this
very day in Munich. A new German National Army will be formed immediately...The task of the provisional German National Government is to organize
the march on that sinful Babel, Berlin, and save the German people! Tomorrow
will find either a National Government in Germany or us dead!"
This led everyone in the beer hall to believe the men in the back room
had given in to Hitler and were joining with the Nazis. There was now wild
cheering for Hitler.
General Ludendorff then arrived. Hitler knew the three government leaders still in the back room would actually listen to him.
At Hitler's urging, Ludendorff spoke to the men in the back room and
advised them to go along with the Nazi revolution. They reluctantly agreed,
then went out to the podium and faced the crowd, showing their support
for Hitler and pledging loyalty to the new regime.
An emotional Hitler spoke to the crowd: "I am going to fulfill the vow I made to myself five years ago
when I was a blind cripple in the military hospital – to know neither rest
nor peace until the November criminals had been overthrown, until on the
ruins of the wretched Germany of today there should have arisen once more
a Germany of power and greatness, of freedom and splendor."
The crowd in the beer hall roared their approval and sang "Deutschland
Über Alles." Hitler was euphoric. This was turning into a night
of triumph for him. Tomorrow he might actually be the new leader of Germany.
But then word came that attempts to take over several Army barracks
had failed and that German soldiers inside those barracks were holding out
against the Nazi storm troopers. Hitler decided to leave the beer hall
and go to the scene to personally resolve the problem.
During the Putsch, Hitler's storm troopers are seen with socialist politicians they have arrested in Munich. Below: Chaotic scene at the Marienplatz as Nazi storm troopers arrive amid onlookers.
Below: Bewildered citizens linger at the Odeonplatz following the failure of the Putsch.
Leaving the beer hall was a fateful error. In his absence the Nazi revolution
quickly began to unravel. The three Bavarian government leaders, Kahr,
Lossow, and Seisser, slipped out of the beer hall after falsely promising
Ludendorff they would remain loyal to Hitler.
Meanwhile, Hitler had no luck in getting the German soldiers who were
holding out in the barracks to surrender. Having failed at that, he went
back to the beer hall.
When he arrived back at the beer hall he was aghast to find his revolution
fizzling. There were no plans for tomorrow's march on Berlin. Munich wasn't
even being occupied. Nothing was happening.
In fact, only one building, Army headquarters at the War Ministry had
been occupied by Ernst Röhm and his troopers. Elsewhere, rogue
bands of Nazi thugs roamed the city of Munich rounding up some political
opponents and harassing Jews.
In the early morning hours of November 9th, State Commissioner Kahr broke
his promise to Hitler and Ludendorff and issued a statement blasting Hitler: "Declarations extorted from me, General Lossow and Colonel von Seisser
by pistol point are null and void. Had the senseless and purposeless attempt
at revolt succeeded, Germany would have been plunged into the abyss and
Bavaria with it."
Kahr also ordered the breakup of the Nazi Party and its fighting forces.
General Lossow also abandoned Hitler and ordered German Army reinforcements into
Munich to put down the Nazi Putsch. Troops were rushed in and by dawn the
War Ministry building containing Röhm and his troops was surrounded.
Hitler was up all night frantically trying to decide what to do. General
Ludendorff then gave him an idea. The Nazis would simply march into the
middle of Munich and take it over. Because of his World War I fame, Ludendorff
reasoned, no one would dare fire on him. He even assured Hitler the police
and the Army would likely join them. The now-desperate Hitler went for the
11 a.m. on the morning of November 9th, a column of three thousand Nazis, led by Hitler, Göring and
Ludendorff marched toward the center of Munich. Carrying one of the flags
was a young party member named Heinrich Himmler.
After reaching the center of Munich, the Nazis headed toward the War
Ministry building but they encountered a police blockade.
As they stood face to face with about a hundred armed policemen, Hitler
yelled out to them to surrender. They didn't. Shots rang out. Both sides
fired. It lasted about a minute. Sixteen Nazis and three police were killed.
Göring was hit in the groin. Hitler suffered a dislocated shoulder
when the man he had locked arms with was shot and pulled him down onto
Hitler's bodyguard, Ulrich Graf, jumped onto Hitler to shield him and
took several bullets, probably saving Hitler's life. Hitler then crawled
along the sidewalk out of the line of fire and scooted away into a waiting
car, leaving his comrades behind. The rest of the Nazis scattered or were
arrested. Ludendorff, true to his heroic form, walked right through the
line of fire to the police and was then arrested.
Hitler wound up at the home his friends, the Hanfstaengls, where he
was reportedly talked out of suicide. He had become deeply despondent and
expected to be shot by the authorities. He spent two nights hiding in the
Hanfstaengl's attic. On the third night, police arrived and arrested him.
He was taken to the prison at Landsberg where his spirits lifted somewhat
after he was told he was going to get a public trial.
With the collapse of the Nazi revolution, it now appeared to most observers
that Hitler's political career and the Nazi movement itself had come to
a crashing, almost laughable end.