The Nuremberg Trial was conducted by a joint United States-British-French-Soviet
military tribunal, with each nation supplying two judges. The four counts
in the indictment were:
Count 1 - CONSPIRACY to commit crimes alleged in
the next three counts.
Count 2 - CRIMES AGAINST PEACE including planning,
preparing, starting, or waging aggressive war.
Count 3 - WAR CRIMES including
violations of laws or customs of war.
Count 4 - CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY
including murder, extermination, enslavement, persecution on political
or racial grounds, involuntary deportment, and inhumane acts against civilian
The majority of the defendants claimed they were unknowing pawns of
Adolf Hitler or were simply following orders. Evidence used against the
defendants included Nazi propaganda films and extensive Nazi paperwork
documenting mass murder and other crimes. Also shown were films taken by
the Allies after the liberation of extermination camps. Evidence in the
court room included the shrunken head of a concentration camp inmate and
tattooed human skin from concentration camp inmates used to make lampshades
and other household articles.
Front Row Left to Right
Hermann Göring - Considered to be the number two man in
Nazi Germany after Hitler, Göring waged a vigorous defense on his
own behalf. Guilty on all 4 counts. Sentenced to death by hanging, but
committed suicide by swallowing poison on October 16, 1946 just two hours
before his scheduled hanging.
EXTRACT of the Judgment against Göring as it was pronounced.
"From the moment he joined the Party in 1922 and took command of
the street fighting organization, the SA, Göring was the adviser,
the active agent of Hitler and one of the prime leaders of the Nazi movement.
As Hitler's political deputy he was largely instrumental in bringing the
National Socialists to power in 1933, and was charged with consolidating
this power and expanding German armed might. He developed the Gestapo and
created the first concentration camps, relinquishing them to Himmler 1934;
conducted the Röhm purge in that year and engineered the sordid proceedings
which resulted in the removal of von Blomberg and von Fritsch from the
army... In the Austrian Anschluss he was, indeed, the central figure, the
ringleader... The night before
the invasion of Czechoslovakia and the absorption of Bohemia and Moravia,
at a conference with Hitler and President Hacha he threatened to bomb Prague
if Hacha did not submit... He commanded the Luftwaffe in the attack on
Poland and throughout the aggressive wars which followed... The record
is filled with Göring's admissions of his complicity in the use of
slave labor... He made plans for the spoliation of Soviet territory long
before the war on the Soviet Union... Göring persecuted the Jews,
particularly after the November, 1938, riots and not only in Germany,
where be raised the billion-mark fine as stated elsewhere, but in the conquered
territories as well. His own utterances, then and in his testimony, show
his interest was primarily economic-how to get their property and how to
force them out of the economic life of Europe. ...Although their extermination
was in Himmler's hands, Göring was far from disinterested or inactive
despite his protestations from the witness box... There is nothing to be
said in mitigation... His guilt is unique in its enormity. The record discloses
no excuses for this man."
Rudolf Hess - Formerly the number three man
in Hitler's Germany until his flight to England on May 10, 1941, in which
he attempted to negotiate peace with the British, who promptly imprisoned
him for the duration of the war. Found guilty on counts 1 and 2. Sentenced
to life imprisonment. Hess was the sole surviving Nazi in Spandau prison
until 1987 when he committed suicide at age 92.
a biography of Rudolf Hess
EXTRACT of the Judgment against Hess as it was pronounced.
"... As deputy to the Führer, Hess was the top man in the
Nazi Party with responsibility for handling all Party matters and authority
to make decisions in Hitler's name on all questions of Party leadership...
Hess was an informed and willing participant in German aggression against
Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Poland... On September 27, 1938, at the time
of the Munich crisis, he arranged with Keitel to carry out the instructions
of Hitler to make the machinery of the Nazi Party available for a secret
mobilization... With him on his flight to England, Hess carried certain
peace proposals which he alleged Hitler was prepared to accept. It is significant
to note that this flight took place only 10 days after the date
on which Hitler fixed the time for attacking the Soviet Union... That Hess
acts in an abnormal manner, suffers from loss of memory, and has mentally
deteriorated during this trial, may be true. But there is nothing to show
that he does not realize the nature of the charges against him, or is
incapable of defending himself... There is no suggestion that Hess
was not completely sane when the acts charged against him were committed."
Joachim von Ribbentrop - Nazi Minister of Foreign Affairs from
1938 to 1945, who signed the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression Pact of 1939 that
paved the way for Hitler to attack Poland. Ribbentrop later involved himself
in the Final Solution by pressuring the Italian, Bulgarian, Hungarian and
Danish governments to evacuate Jews. Found guilty on all four counts. Sentenced
to death by hanging.
EXTRACT of the Judgment against Ribbentrop as it was pronounced.
"Ribbentrop was not present at the Hossbach Conference held on
November 5, 1937 (at which Hitler revealed his war plans), but on January
2, 1938, while Ambassador to England, he sent a memorandum to Hitler indicating
his opinion that a change in the status quo in the East in the German sense
could only be carried out by force and suggesting methods to prevent England
and France from intervening in a European war fought to bring about such
a change... Ribbentrop participated in the aggressive plans against Czechoslovakia.
Beginning in March 1938, he was in close touch with the Sudeten German
Party and gave them instructions which had the effect of keeping the Sudeten
German question a live issue which might serve as an excuse for the attack
which Germany was planning against Czechoslovakia... After the Munich Pact
he continued to bring diplomatic pressure with the object of occupying
the remainder of Czechoslovakia... Ribbentrop played a particularly significant
role in the diplomatic activity which led up to the attack on Poland. He
participated in a conference held on August 12, 1939, for the purpose of
obtaining Italian support if the attack should lead to a general European
war. Ribbentrop discussed the German demands with respect to Danzig and
the Polish Corridor with the British Ambassador in the period from August
25 to August 30, 1939, when he knew that the German plans to attack Poland
had merely been temporarily postponed in an attempt to induce the British
to abandon their guarantee to the Poles... He played
an important part in Hitler's 'Final Solution' of the Jewish question.
In September, 1942, be ordered the German diplomatic representatives accredited
to various satellites to hasten the deportation of the Jews to the East...
Ribbentrop participated in all the Nazi aggressions from the occupation
of Austria to the invasion of the Soviet Union... It was because Hitler's
policy and plans coincided with his own ideas that Ribbentrop served him
so willingly to the end."
Wilhelm Keitel - General Field Marshal and
Chief of Staff of the German High Command of the Armed Forces who condoned
mass murder by the SS. Keitel also issued orders regarding the Night
and Fog (Nacht und Nebel) decree. Found guilty on all four counts and
sentenced to death by hanging.
EXTRACT of the Judgment against Keitel as it was pronounced.
"...Keitel was present on May 23, 1939, when Hitler announced his
decision 'to attack Poland at the first suitable opportunity.' Already
he had signed the directive requiring the Wehrmacht to submit its 'Fall
Weiss' timetable (for the attack on Poland) to OKW (Oberkommando Der Wehrmacht
- Armed Forces High Command) on May 1... Hitler had said, on May
23, 1939, that he would ignore the neutrality of Belgium and the Netherlands,
and Keitel signed orders for the attacks on October 15, November 20, and
November 28, 1939... Keitel testified that be opposed the invasion of the
Soviet Union for military reasons, and also because it would constitute
a violation of the Non-Aggression Pact. Nevertheless, he initialed 'Case
Barbarossa' (for the attack on Russia) signed by Hitler on December 18,
1940, and attended the OKW discussion with Hitler on February 3, 1941..
On Aug. 4, 1942, Keitel issued a directive that paratroopers were to be
turned over to the SD. On September 16, 1941, Keitel ordered that
attacks on soldiers in the East should be met by putting to death 50 to
100 Communists for one German soldier, with the comment that human
life was less than nothing in the East... Superior orders, even to a soldier,
cannot be considered in mitigation where crimes as shocking and extensive
have been committed consciously, ruthlessly."
Ernst Kaltenbrunner - Successor in 1943 to Heydrich in the SS
organization, in charge of the Reich Main Security Office (RSHA) with responsibilities
including the Gestapo and the systematic evacuation of Jews to extermination
camps. Found guilty on counts 3 and 4. Sentenced to death by hanging.
EXTRACT of the Judgment against Kaltenbrunner as it was pronounced.
"...When he became Chief of the Security Police and SD and head
of the RSHA on January 30, 1943, Kaltenbrunner took charge of an organization
which included the main offices of the Gestapo, the SD and the Criminal
Police... During the period in which Kaltenbrunner was head of the RSHA,
it was engaged in a widespread program of War Crimes and Crimes Against
Humanity. These crimes included the mistreatment and murder of prisoners
of war. Jews, commissars, and others who were thought to be ideologically
hostile to the Nazi regime were reported to the RSHA, which had them transferred
to a concentration camp and murdered... The order for the execution of
commando troops was extended by the Gestapo to include parachutists while
Kaltenbrunner was Chief of the RSHA. An order signed by Kaltenbrunner instructed
the police not to interfere with attacks on bailed out Allied fliers...
The RSHA played a leading part in the 'Final Solution' of the Jewish question
by the extermination of the Jews. A special section under the Amt IV of
the RSHA was established to supervise this program. Under its direction
approximately 6 million Jews were murdered, of which 2 million were killed
by the Einsatzgruppen and other units of the Security Police. Kaltenbrunner
had been informed of the activities of these Einsatzgruppen when be was
a Higher SS and Police leader, and they continued to function after he
had become Chief of the RSHA. The murder of a approximately 4 million Jews
in concentration camps...was also under the supervision of the RSHA when
Kaltenbrunner was bead of that organization..."
Alfred Rosenberg - Nazi Party racial 'philosopher,' appointed
Minister of the Eastern Occupied Territories in 1941, who aided Göring
and Hitler in plundering art treasures. Found guilty on all four counts
and sentenced to death by hanging.
EXTRACT of the Judgment against Rosenberg as it was pronounced.
"... Recognized as the Party's ideologist, he developed and spread
Nazi doctrines in the newspapers Völkischer Beobachter and NS Monatshefte,
which he edited, and in the numerous books he wrote... As head of the
APA (Aussenpolitisches Amt - the Nazi foreign policy office), Rosenberg
was in charge of an organization whose agents were active in Nazi intrigue
in all parts of the world. His own reports, for example, claim that the
APA was largely responsible for Rumania's joining the Axis. As head of
the APA, he played an important part in the preparation and planning of
the attack on Norway. Rosenberg bears a major responsibility for the formulation
and execution of occupation policies in the Occupied Eastern Territories.
He was informed by Hitler on April 2, 1941, of the coming attack
against the Soviet Union, and he agreed to help in the capacity of 'Political
Adviser' ... On July 17, 1941, Hitler appointed Rosenberg Reich Minister
for the Eastern Occupied Territories, and publicly charged him with
responsibility for civil administration... He helped to formulate the policies
of Germanization, exploitation, forced labor, extermination of Jews
and opponents of Nazi rule, and be set up an administration which carried
them out... Rosenberg had knowledge of the brutal treatment and terror
to which the Eastern people were subjected. He directed that the Hague
Rules of Land Warfare were not applicable in the Occupied Eastern Territories.
He had knowledge of and took an active part in stripping the Eastern Territories
of raw materials and foodstuffs, which were all sent to Germany. He stated
that feeding the German people was first on the list of claims on the East,
and the Soviet people would suffer thereby. His directives provided for
the segregation of Jews, ultimately in Ghettos. His subordinates
engaged in mass killings of Jews, and his civil administrators considered
that cleansing the Eastern Occupied Territories of Jews was necessary...
He gave his civil administrators quotas of laborers to be sent to the Reich,
which had to be met by whatever means necessary. His signature of approval
appears on the order of June 14, 1941, for the Heu Aktion, the apprehension
of 40,000 to 50,000 youths, aged 10-14, for shipment to the Reich..."
Hans Frank - Nazi lawyer and Gauleiter of occupied Poland who
stated in 1941 "I ask nothing of the Jews except that they should
disappear." Amid the ruthless extermination of Poland's Jews, Frank
earned the nickname the "Jew Butcher of Cracow." Under his rule,
the nation of Poland disappeared as a national entity and became a slave
state, with the murder of Poland's leaders, educated elite and clergy,
and the extermination of nearly all Poland's Jews. At the Nuremberg trial
he declared "... a thousand years will pass and the guilt of Germany
will not be erased." Found guilty on counts 3 and 4. Sentenced to
death by hanging.
EXTRACT of the Judgment against Frank as it was pronounced.
"... Frank was appointed Chief Civil Administration Officer for
occupied Polish territory and, on October 12, 1939, was made Governor-General
of the occupied Polish territory. On October 3, 1939, he described the
policy which he intended to put into effect by stating: 'Poland shall be
treated like a colony; the Poles will become the slaves of the Greater
German World Empire.' The evidence establishes that this occupation policy
was based on the complete destruction of Poland as a national entity, and
a ruthless exploitation of its human and economic resources for the German
war effort... Frank was a willing and knowing participant in the use of
terrorism in Poland; in the economic exploitation of Poland in a way which
led to the death by starvation of a large number of people; in the deportation
to Germany as slave laborers of over a million Poles; and in a program
involving the murder of at least 3 million Jews."
Wilhelm Frick - Nazi Minister of the Interior from 1933 to 1943,
who originated the Nuremberg Race Laws of 1935 which deprived German Jews
of their rights as citizens. Found guilty on counts 2, 3 and 4. Sentenced
to death by hanging.
EXTRACT of the Judgment against Frick as it was pronounced.
"...An avid Nazi, Frick was largely responsible for bringing the
German nation under the complete control of the NSDAP... The numerous laws
he drafted, signed, and administered abolished all opposition parties and
prepared the way for the Gestapo and their concentration camps to extinguish
all individual opposition. He was largely responsible for the legislation
which suppressed the Trade Unions, the Church, the Jews. He performed this
task with ruthless efficiency... Always rabidly anti-Semitic, Frick drafted,
signed, and administered many laws destined to eliminate Jews from German
life and economy. His work formed the basis of the Nuremberg Decrees, and
he was active in enforcing them... He bad knowledge that insane, sick and
aged people, 'useless eaters.' were being systematically put to death.
Complaints of these murders reached him, but he did nothing to stop them..."
Julius Streicher - Gauleiter of the section of Germany known
as Franconia with headquarters in Nuremberg. Streicher was a notorious
anti-Semite who published a popular semi-pornographic anti-Semitic paper,
Der Stürmer, which advocated violent persecution
of the Jews. Found guilty on count 4 and sentenced to death by hanging.
EXTRACT of the Judgment against Streicher as it was pronounced.
"...For his 25 years of speaking, writing, and preaching
hatred of the Jews, Streicher was widely known as 'Jew-Baiter Number One.'
In his speeches and articles, week after week, month after month, he
infected the German mind with the virus of anti-Semitism, and incited the
German people to active persecution... Streicher had charge of the Jewish
boycott of April 1, 1933. He advocated the Nuremberg Decrees of 1935. He
was responsible for the demolition on August 10, 1938, of the synagogue
in Nuremberg. And on November 10, 1938, he spoke publicly in support
of the Jewish pogroms which were taking place at that time. But it was
not only in Germany that this defendant advocated his doctrines. As early
as 1938 he began to call for the annihilation of the Jewish race... With
knowledge of the extermination of the Jews in the Occupied Eastern Territories,
this defendant continued to write and publish his propaganda of death...
Streicher's incitement to murder and extermination at the time when Jews
in the East were being killed under the most horrible conditions clearly
constitutes persecution on political and racial grounds in connection with
war crimes, as defined by the Charter, and constitutes a crime against
Walther Funk - Minister of Economic Affairs from 1937 to 1945,
Funk headed the Reichsbank which received gold, jewels, and other valuables
taken by Himmler's SS from Jews destined for extermination. Found guilty
on counts 2, 3, and 4. Sentenced to life imprisonment, Funk was released
in 1957 for health reasons and died in 1960.
EXTRACT of the Judgment against Funk as it was pronounced.
"...Funk became active in the economic field after the Nazi plans
to wage aggressive war bad been clearly defined... On October 14, 1939,
after the war had begun, Funk made a speech in which he stated that the
economic and financial departments of Germany working under the Four Year
Plan had been engaged in the secret economic preparation for war for over
a year... In 1942 Funk entered into an agreement with Himmler under which
the Reichsbank was to receive certain gold and jewels and currency from
the SS and instructed his subordinates, who were to work out the details,
not to ask too many questions. As a result of this agreement the SS sent
to the Reichsbank the personal belongings taken from the victims who bad
been exterminated in the concentration camps. The Reichsbank kept the coins
and banknotes and sent the jewels, watches, and personal belongings to
Berlin Municipal Pawn Shops. The gold from the eye-glasses and gold teeth
and fillings was stored in the Reichsbank vaults. Funk has protested that
he did not know that the Reichsbank was receiving articles of this kind.
The Tribunal is of the opinion that Funk either knew what was being received
or was deliberately closing his eyes to what was being done..."
Hjalmar Schacht - The financial wizard who helped Hitler re-arm
Germany, but eventually fell out of favor and was arrested in 1944 with
many others after the failed assassination attempt on Hitler and sent to
a concentration camp. Found not guilty. Schacht went on to have a successful
postwar business career in international banking and died in 1970.
EXTRACT of the Judgment for Schacht as it was pronounced.
"Schacht was an active supporter of the Nazi Party before its accession
to power on January 30, 1933, and supported the appointment of Hitler to
the post of Chancellor. After that he played an important role in the vigorous
rearmament program which was adopted, using the facilities of the Reichsbank
to the fullest extent in the German rearmament effort... As Minister of
Economics and as Plenipotentiary General for War Economy he was active
in organizing the German economy for war... But rearmament of itself
is not criminal under the Charter. To be a crime against peace under Article
6 of the Charter it must be shown that Schacht carried out this rearmament
as part of the Nazi plan to wage aggressive wars... The Tribunal has considered
the whole of this evidence with great care, and comes to the conclusion
that this necessary inference has not been established beyond a reasonable
Back Row Left to Right
Karl Dönitz - Grand Admiral who became Commander in Chief
of the German Navy in 1943 and at the end of the war was designated to
succeed Hitler. Dönitz directed the Battle of the Atlantic against
Allied shipping using the wolf pack technique of submarine warfare. Found
guilty on counts 2 and 3. Sentenced to ten years imprisonment.
EXTRACT of the Judgment against Dönitz as it was pronounced.
"Although Dönitz built and trained the German U-boat arm,
the evidence does not show he was privy to the conspiracy to wage aggressive
wars or that he prepared and initiated such wars... The Tribunal is of
the opinion that the evidence does not establish with the certainty required
that Dönitz deliberately ordered the killing of shipwrecked survivors...
The evidence further shows that the rescue provisions were not carried
out and that the defendant ordered that they should not be carried out...
Dönitz was also charged with responsibility for Hitler's Commando
order of October 18,1942...[by which] the members of an Allied motor torpedo
boat were...turned over to the SD and shot..."
Erich Raeder - Grand Admiral and Commander in chief of the German
Navy until he was succeeded by Dönitz in 1943. Found guilty on counts
1, 2, and 3. Sentenced to life imprisonment but was released in 1955.
EXTRACT of the Judgment against Raeder as it was pronounced.
"In the 15 years he commanded it, Raeder built and directed the
German Navy; he accepts full responsibility until retirement in 1943. He
admits the navy violated the Versailles Treaty, insisting it was 'a matter
of honor for every man' to do so... He was one of the 5 leaders present
at the Hossbach Conference of November 5, 1937... The conception of the
invasion of Norway first arose in the mind of Raeder and not that of Hitler...
Raeder endeavored to dissuade Hitler from embarking upon the invasion of
the USSR... But once the decision bad been made, he gave permission six
days before the invasion of the Soviet Union to attack Russian submarines
in the Baltic Sea... It is clear from this evidence that Raeder participated
in the planning and waging of aggressive war..."
Baldur von Schirach - Hitler Youth leader of part American origin
who helped lead millions of young Germans into Nazi fanaticism, he became
Gauleiter of Vienna in 1940. At Nuremberg he denounced Hitler. Found guilty
on count 4 and sentenced to twenty years imprisonment.
EXTRACT of the Judgment against von Schirach as it was pronounced.
"...Von Schirach used the Hitler Youth to educate German Youth
'in the spirit of National Socialism' and subjected them to an extensive
program of Nazi propaganda... When von Schirach became Gauleiter of Vienna
the deportation of the Jews had already begun... On September 15, 1942,
von Schirach made a speech in which he defended his action in having
driven 'tens of thousands upon tens of thousands of Jews into the Ghetto
of the East' as 'contributing to European culture'... The Tribunal finds
that von Schirach, while he did not originate the policy of deporting Jews
from Vienna, participated in this deportation after he had become Gauleiter
of Vienna. He knew that the best the Jews could hope for was a miserable
existence in the Ghettos of the East. Bulletins describing the Jewish extermination
were in his office..."
Fritz Sauckel - Headed the Nazi slave labor program and was responsible
for the forced deportation of five million persons from occupied territories
into Germany. Found guilty on counts 3 and 4. Sentenced to death by hanging.
EXTRACT of the Judgment against Sauckel as it was pronounced.
"...Shortly after Sauckel had taken office, he had the governing
authorities in the various occupied territories issue decrees, establishing
compulsory labor service in Germany... That real voluntary recruiting was
the exception rather than the rule is shown by Sauckel's statement on March
1, 1944 that 'out of 5 million workers who arrived in Germany,
not even 200,000 came voluntarily.' ...His attitude was thus expressed
in a regulation: 'All the men must be fed, sheltered, and treated in such
a way as to exploit them to the highest possible extent at the lowest conceivable
degree of expenditure.' The evidence shows that Sauckel was in charge
of a program which involved deportation for slave labor of more than 5
million human beings, many of, them under terrible conditions of cruelty
Alfred Jodl - Chief of the Operations Staff of the High Command
of the German Armed Forces. At Nuremberg he claimed it was "not the
task of a soldier to act as judge over his supreme commander." Found
guilty on all 4 counts. Sentenced to death by hanging.
EXTRACT of the Judgment against Jodl as it was pronounced.
"...Jodl discussed the Norway invasion with Hitler, Keitel, and
Raeder on December 12, 1939; his diary is replete with late entries
on his activities in preparing this attack... He was active in the planning
against Greece and Yugoslavia... Jodl testified that Hitler feared an attack
by Russia and so attacked first. This preparation began almost a year before
the invasion. Jodl told Warlimont as early as July 29, 1940 to prepare
the plans since Hitler had decided to attack... A plan to eliminate Soviet
commissars was in the directive for 'Case Barbarossa.' The decision whether
they should be killed without trial was to be made by an officer... His
defense, in brief, is the doctrine of 'superior orders,' prohibited by
Article 8 of the Charter as a defense... Participation in such crimes as
these has never been required of any soldier and be cannot now shield himself
behind a mythical requirement of soldierly obedience at all costs as his
excuse for commission of these crimes."
Franz von Papen - Chancellor of Germany in 1932 who aided Hitler
and the Nazi takeover of power in 1933 and was involved in the Nazi Anschluss
(union) with Austria in 1938. Found not guilty.
EXTRACT of the Judgment for von Papen as it was pronounced.
"Von Papen was active in 1932 and 1933
in helping Hitler to form the Coalition Cabinet and aided in his appointment
as Chancellor on January 30, 1933. As Vice-Chancellor in that Cabinet
be participated in the Nazi consolidation of control in 1933... Notwithstanding
the murder of his associates, von Papen accepted the position of Minister
to Austria on July 26, 1934, the day after Dollfuss had been assassinated...
The evidence leaves no doubt that von Papen's primary purpose as Minister
to Austria was to undermine the Schhuschnigg regime and strengthen the
Austrian Nazis for the purpose of bringing about the Anschluss. To carry
through this plan he engaged in both intrigue and bullying. But the Charter
does not make criminal such offenses against political morality, however
bad these may be... Under the Charter, von Papen can be held guilty only
if he was party to the planning of aggressive war...but it is not established
beyond a reasonable doubt that this was the purpose of his activity..."
Arthur Seyss-Inquart - Gauleiter of Austria and then Reich Commissioner
of the Netherlands, and the man who betrayed Austria to the Nazis during
the Anschluss. Found guilty on counts 2, 3, and 4. Sentenced to death by
EXTRACT of the Judgment against Seyss-Inquart as it was pronounced.
"...Seyss-Inquart participated in the last stages of the Nazi intrigue
which preceded the German occupation of Austria... As Reich Commissioner
for Occupied Netherlands, Seyss-Inquart was ruthless in applying terrorism
to suppress all opposition to the German occupation, a program which he
described as 'annihilating' his opponents. In collaboration with the Higher
SS and Police leaders he was involved in the shooting of hostages for offenses
against the occupation authorities and sending to concentration camps all
suspected opponents of occupation policies including priests and educators...
Seyss-Inquart contends that he was not responsible for many of the crimes
committed in the occupation of the Netherlands... But the fact remains
that Seyss-Inquart was a knowing and voluntary participant in War Crimes
and Crimes against Humanity which were committed in the occupation of the
Albert Speer - Architect, close friend of Hitler, and Minister
of Armaments and War Production from 1942 to 1945, Speer coordinated the
entire German industrial war production effort. At Nuremberg, Speer acknowledged
the guilt of the Nazi regime and admitted responsibility for the slave
labor in factories under his control. Found guilty on counts 3 and 4. Sentenced
to twenty years. On his release from Spandau prison in 1966, Speer became
a best selling author with his book, Inside the Third Reich. He
died in 1981, and maintained until the end he had known little about the
extermination of the Jews.
EXTRACT of the Judgment against Speer as it was pronounced.
"The evidence introduced against Speer under counts 3 and 4 relates
entirely to his participation in the slave labor program... As Reich Minister
for Armaments and Munitions and General Plenipotentiary for Armaments under
the Four Year Plan, Speer had extensive authority over production... The
practice was developed under which Speer transmitted to Sauckel an estimate
of the total number of workers needed, Sauckel obtained the labor and allocated
it to the various industries in accordance with instructions supplied by
Speer. Speer knew when he made his demands on Sauckel that they would be
supplied by foreign laborers serving under compulsion... Sauckel continually
informed Speer and his representative that foreign laborers were being
obtained by force... (However) It must be recognized that...in the closing
stages of the war he was one of the few men who had the courage to tell
Hitler that the war was lost and to take steps to prevent the senseless
destruction of production facilities..."
Konstantin von Neurath - Nazi Foreign Minister from 1932
to 1938, then Reich Protector of Bohemia and Moravia, responsible for the
Nazi crackdown on Czechoslovakia after the German invasion. Found guilty
on all 4 counts. Sentenced to fifteen years imprisonment, but was released
after eight years in 1954 for health reasons.
EXTRACT of the Judgment against von Neurath as it was pronounced.
"...As Minister of Foreign Affairs, von Neurath advised Hitler
in connection with the withdrawal from the Disarmament Conference and the
League of Nations on October 14, 1933, the institution of rearmament...
Von Neurath took part in the Hossbach Conference of November 5, 1937. He
has testified that he was so shocked by Hitler's statements that he had
a heart attack. Shortly thereafter he offered to resign, and his resignation
was accepted on February 4, 1938, at the same time that von Fritsch and
von Blomberg were dismissed. Yet with knowledge of Hitler's aggressive
plans he retained a formal relationship with the Nazi regime as Reich Minister
Without Portfolio... Von Neurath was appointed Reich Protector for Bohemia
and Moravia on March 18, 1939... The free press, political parties,
and trade unions were abolished. All groups which might serve as opposition
were outlawed... He served as the chief German official in the Protectorate
when the administration of this territory played an important role in the
wars of aggression which Germany was waging in the East, knowing that War
Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity were being committed under his authority..."
Hans Fritzsche - Responsible for controlling the German Press,
then head of Radio Broadcasting in the Nazi Ministry of Propaganda under
Joseph Goebbels. Notable for a voice that sounded like Goebbels on the
radio, Fritzsche broadcast Nazi political commentary. Found not guilty.
EXTRACT of the Judgment for Fritzsche as it was pronounced.
"...The Radio Division, of which Fritzsche became the head in November
1942, was one of the twelve divisions of the Propaganda Ministry . . .
It appears that Fritzscbe sometimes made strong statements of a propagandistic
nature in his broadcasts. But the Tribunal is not prepared to hold that
they were intended to incite the German people to commit atrocities on
conquered peoples, and he cannot be said to have been a participant
in the crimes charged..."
On October 16, 1946, Ribbentrop was the first one taken into the execution
chamber of the Nuremberg prison and mounted the gallows to be hanged. He
was followed in quick succession by Keitel, Kaltenbrunner, Rosenberg, Frank,
Frick, Streicher, Seyss-Inquart, Sauckel, and Jodl. The bodies were then
taken to the crematorium at Dachau concentration camp and burned. The ashes
were scattered into a brook in Munich.
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